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  • P15:

    A protein found in the cell-signaling cascade. This protein blocks the activity of the Cdk partners of cyclin D, thus preventing the progression of the cell cycle.

  • P21:

    A protein that is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases.

  • P5:

    An important protein that is the product of a tumor suppressor gene. It prevents replication of damaged DNA by normal cells and promotes apoptosis.

  • p53:

    An important tumour suppressor gene that prevents replication of damaged DNA by normal cells and promotes their apoptosis.

  • PCR:

    An in vitro technique for rapidly synthesizing large quantities of a given DNA segment that involves separating the DNA into its two complementary strands, binding a primer to each single strand at the end of the given DNA segment where synthesis will start, using DNA polymerase to synthesize two-stranded DNA from each single strand, and repeating the process.

  • Plasmid:

    A small, circular DNA molecule. Bacteria can have plasmids in addition to the DNA of the main chromosome. Foreign DNA can be added to plasmids. The modified plasmid then transports the DNA into a new cell.

  • Prion:

    An infectious agent proposed to be responsible for Bovine Spongeform Encephalitis (BSE, or mad cow disease) in cattle, and Jacob-Creutzfeld disease in humans. Prions are controversial because they consist of protein only, and carry no genetic material, making them unique among living species.

  • Proteoglycans:

    Complex comprised of a central protein core and covalently bound polysaccharide molecules. Proteoglycans are found in connective tissues, such as bone and cartilage, and on the cell surface.


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